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Prisms

An optical prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surface that refract light. The exact angles between the surfaces depend on the application. The most common is the right angle prism that reflects the incoming light 90 degrees. A cube beam splitter can be made by cementing two right angle prisms together with a thin film coating in the center. The right angle prism and cube beam splitters are typically coated with a dialect film to enhance transmission and modify the transmitted or reflected light. Dove and  Penta prisms are also common types of prisms.